Grinding is the process of removing surface layers of material using an abrasive tool such as abrasive paper, diamond paste or abrasive wheels. Sanding can be used to remove surface imperfections such as scratches, or to give a surface the desired shape and size. Sanding can also be used to make a surface smooth, however, if a higher level of smoothness is required, polishing is used.
Polishing is the process of smoothing the surface of a material using polishing agents such as pastes or liquids that contain abrasive particles. Polishing is usually done after sanding and is used to give the surface a high level of smoothness and shine.
Sanding tools can be manual or electric. Hand tools, such as sandpaper or sandpaper, are used for fine work or for hard-to-reach areas. Electric tools, such as sanders, are used for larger surfaces or for doing work at high speeds. Abrasives of different grits are used for sanding, which are chosen depending on the level of smoothness that needs to be achieved.
The applications of grinding and polishing are very wide. Grinding is used in the manufacture of metal products, furniture, shoes, cars, boats and many other applications. Polishing is used to create a high level of finish on metal products, jewellery, cars and many other products.