Basic principles of grinding and polishing

Grinding and polishing are processes used to treat the surface of a material to improve its quality and appearance. However, although these terms are often used together, they have their differences.
Grinding is the process of removing surface layers of material using an abrasive tool such as abrasive paper, diamond paste or abrasive wheels. Sanding can be used to remove surface imperfections such as scratches, or to give a surface the desired shape and size. Sanding can also be used to make a surface smooth, however, if a higher level of smoothness is required, polishing is used.

Polishing is the process of smoothing the surface of a material using polishing agents such as pastes or liquids that contain abrasive particles. Polishing is usually done after sanding and is used to give the surface a high level of smoothness and shine.

Sanding tools can be manual or electric. Hand tools, such as sandpaper or sandpaper, are used for fine work or for hard-to-reach areas. Electric tools, such as sanders, are used for larger surfaces or for doing work at high speeds. Abrasives of different grits are used for sanding, which are chosen depending on the level of smoothness that needs to be achieved.

The applications of grinding and polishing are very wide. Grinding is used in the manufacture of metal products, furniture, shoes, cars, boats and many other applications. Polishing is used to create a high level of finish on metal products, jewellery, cars and many other products.

How to grind properly:
Surface preparation: Before starting sanding, the surface must be free of dirt, grease, rust and other contaminants. This will allow the tool to adhere better to the surface and achieve a more efficient finish.

Choosing the right abrasive tool depends on the material to be sanded and the level of smoothness required. For example, silicon carbide or diamond grit abrasive wheels are commonly used for grinding metal.
Speed setting: the speed of the tool is also important for proper surface finish. Typically, tool manufacturers recommend a certain speed for certain materials, so it is important to follow these recommendations.

Correct direction: when sanding, it is important to move in one direction rather than back and forth to avoid denting and creating deep scratches on the surface.

Checking the surface: after each sanding step, check the surface for defects and determine if the desired level of smoothness has been achieved. If required, repeat the process using a finer grit tool.
In conclusion, sanding and polishing are important processes to achieve a high level of finish and surface quality on a material. Choosing the right tools and materials, setting the speed and the correct direction of travel are all important factors for a proper surface finish. When done correctly, grinding and polishing can achieve a high level of smoothness and lustre and improve the appearance and quality of the product.
Alexander Pirogov, Founder
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